Glossary of Lean Production Related Terms The following contains a sometimes commented glossary of terms related to lean manufacturing or production management with a brief definition. The list includes a lot of Japanese terms, although almost all of them can also easily be explained using English terms, which are also given.
Takt Time Takt Time is the rate at which products or services should be produced to meet the rate of customer demand. It is derived from the German word, Taktzeit, which is often referred to as the heartbeat or drumbeat of production in Lean Manufacturing.
The Takt time analysis, in conjunction with the current loading production rates, is used to analyze process loads, bottlenecks, and excess capacity. The study will indicate which operations are ahead of the demand rate and which are not, both indicating opportunities for improvement.
This is strictly a formula and calculation. Use it to compare the measured "loading" to quantify whether an operation meets, exceeds, and by how much. Below is an example calculation.
It is labeled PROCESS 1 because if the amount of work time available OR the demand on that particular machine or group of machines varies from one process to another then each process will have its own takt time.
Takt Time and Loading Calculator A Takt Time calculator along with other templates and calculators with an example is available here. The formulas within the spreadsheet are visible to help comprehend the impact of the inputs.
Chances are these machines processes or services share demand. However, in many workcellsall the machines have the same customer demand rate and the same available work time making the line balancing activity an easier task.
Those operations that are performing better than takt time also have opportunity for improvement; often the load from a process that is behind can be offloaded and shared. The amount is determined by the differences in the current load and takt time studies for each process.
The study is normally depicted using bar graphs and will not only show bottlenecks or excess capacity but will quantify the amount and show relativity between all operations. Interpret the Chart The chart below shows the results of an evaluation of the nine process A-H to produce a particular product.
What takeaways are there? Processes B,C,D,E have excess capacity since they are outperforming the customer demand or takt time. In such a situation, evaluate the manpower for the possibility of shifting it to a constraint operation or reduce overtime. In reality this is very difficult to achieve and maintain loading at the exact level of takt time.
For one, the takt time often changes customer demand changes. Process H may be a minor constraint. Perhaps a SMED event could deliver enough improvement to alleviate any bottleneck. In this type of situation, there should not be any late deliveries to the customer.
Of course this is a snapshot in time. If the loading or the takt time have a lot of volatility or variationthen that is not going to show up necessarily in this chart. As with any tool that represents a snap shot in time, variation could result in many problems.
It may commonly be known by the team members which operations have capacity and which are the constraints but it is not known to what degree and amount compared to the other processes.ON-DEMAND LEAN PRODUCTION. New article: How BTO can Help Design Half-Cost Products.
by Dr. David M. Anderson, P.E., CMC Build-to-Order Consulting Copyright © by. 5 Whys is an iterative interrogative technique used to explore the cause-and-effect relationships underlying a particular problem. The primary goal of the technique is to determine the root cause of a defect or problem by repeating the question "Why?".
Each answer forms the basis of the next question. The "5" in the name derives from an anecdotal observation on the number of iterations needed. Lean Dictionary of lean manufacturing terms with definitions, formulas, videos, and Excel templates for lead time calculation, cycle time calculation, takt time, value add time, and more lean terms and concepts.
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