System Approach Theory of Management:
Integration and coordination An organization is a continuing system, able to distinguish and integrate human activities. The organization utilizes, transforms and joins together a set of human, material and other resources for problem-solving Bakke, The main function of an organization is to satisfy specific human needs in interaction with other sub-systems of human activities and resources in the given environment.
In a research organization, individual needs of researchers are more often in conflict with organizational needs than in any other organization. Therefore, growth of the organization should concurrently also promote growth of the individual. Characteristics of the research organization Social organizations are characterized by their complexity, degree of inter-dependence between sub-systems, openness, balance, and multiplicity of purposes, functions and objectives Huse and Bowditch, The prevalence of these sub-systems makes the organization complex.
They have to function in harmony with environmental requirements, goals and functions. This may cause conflicts in the organization unless the sub-systems are appropriately balanced.
Forces such as researchers, managerial hierarchy and various inputs from within and outside the organization have to be balanced for the smooth functioning of the organization.
The article presents a history of general systems theory and discusses several of its various aspects. According to the author, the notion of general systems theory first stemmed from the pre-Socratic philosophers, and evolved throughout the ages through different philosophic entities until it was eventually formally structured in the early s. As a concept and academic theory, social systems are used to identify relationships that connect people and organizations, which ultimately contribute to a larger institution. The sociotechnical systems (STS) approach is devoted to the effective blending of both the technical and social systems of an organization. These two aspects must be considered interdependently, because arrangements that are optimal for one may not be .
In the research organization, a researcher can be viewed as a sub-system with specific needs, goals and functioning, although those needs, goals and functioning may sometimes not match those of the organization.
Goal setting In an organization, goal setting is one of the control systems, a component of the appraisal process and an effective tool for human resource management Locke, ; Sherwin, The concept of goal setting is now used to increase the performance of the organization as well as the individual through management by objectives.
Drucker suggested that management by objectives can be useful for managers for effectively managing the future direction of the organization. Importance of goal setting Well specified and clear goals improve performance in an organization by: Goals are an objective way of assessing performance in the organization.
There is a definite linkage between goal setting and performance. The process of goal setting Peter Drucker suggested thirty years ago that a systematic approach to goal setting and appraising by results leads to improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction.
This concept of goal setting is now widely used in most organizations. The process of goal setting or management by objectives as it is often called involves several steps Luthans, Goal setting is based on a top-down approach, and involves: For successful implementation of such a system, it is essential to prepare the members in the organization.
Individual goals are decided jointly by superiors and subordinates. Once goals are finalized, an action plan is developed for implementation. An appraisal and feedback system is an important part of goal setting. The individual is given feedback on his or her performance, and provided with suitable rewards and motivation.
Integration and coordination Integration and coordination refer to integration of the objectives and activities of specialized units or sub-systems in order to achieve the organization's overall strategic objectives.
Coordination and integration are necessary controlling mechanisms to ensure placid functioning, particularly when organizations become large and complex. Integration aims at ensuring that different sub-systems work towards common goals.
Integration of the organizational sub-systems relates to differentiation and division of labour in the organization. Organizational differentiation means un-bundling and re-arranging of activities.
Re-grouping and re-linking them is organizational integration Lawrence and Lorsch, When different units are assigned different tasks and functions, they set independent goals for performing the assigned tasks and function accordingly.
In such situations, integration of the activities of different sub-systems is necessary to facilitate smooth working and to bridge communication gaps. In research organizations, integration of research units and administrative units is very important for the smooth functioning of research activities.
Need for integration Integration and coordination is necessary for several reasons Anderson, Schools are social systems in which two or more persons work together in a coordinated manner to attain common goals. All schools are open systems.
An open system consists of five basic elements: inputs, a transformation process, outputs, feedback, and the environment. application of biomatrix systems theory to organisational development systemic organisational development: introduction to seven forces of system organisation Seven forces of system organisation is a comprehensive and theoretically sound framework for understanding organisational development, management and change.
APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT 1) Empirical Approach 2) Human Behaviour Approach 3) Social System Approach 4) Decision Theory Approach 5) Mathematical Approach 6) Socio-Technical Systems Approach 7) Systems Approach 8) Contingency Approach 9) Operational Approach.
REASONS & PROBLEMS. In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the leslutinsduphoenix.com the macro scale, social structure is the system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or, other patterned relations between large social groups.
A Successful Systemic Approach to Organizational Change “Traditional management features a fragmented analysis of organizations that is based on financial data without sufficient attention to the persons involved. on a social theory which identified in any concrete social system these four universal functional aspects (adaptation, goal-attainment, integration, pattern maintenance) which often constitute autonomous subsystems of the respective system.