Concepts are often noun-like in that they identify things or properties that we expect to see in realizations of the architecture, similarly relationships are normally linguistically verbs.
In order to increase mission reliability and reduce the logistics footprint, considerable interest is now being focused on the implementation of prognostics. One approach to prognostics is to track usage in terms of mile, hours or cycles, and generate replacement-before-failure rules for components subject to aging whenever the system is preparing to enter a period during which failures must be zealously avoided e.
This report documents the development and notional application of a new tool that implements this approach. The tool, which is an extension of Mathematicagenerates graphs and tables for a variety of metrics that one could use in an interactive decision-making process.
Mathematica is a leading commercial software package for performing mathematics. Key chapters in this report constitute a basic set of electronic templates for applying the new tool.
The tool itself is provided in the appendices. The key benefit of prognostics is that it can be used to reduce failure risks during deployments and missions when failure is particularly disadvantageous and maintenance inconvenient due to the reduced logistics footprint.
One approach to prognostics is to monitor usage in conjunction with an aging model thereby keeping track of remaining component lifetime.
This enables one to track usage with on-board sensors and embed an algorithm in on-system logistics software that will automatically generate maintenance alerts and recommendations so that a covered component can likely be replaced before failure as its remaining lifetime decreases and failure risk increases.
An additional benefit of usage-based prognostics is that it can also be used to identify an optimum replacement age that minimizes life cycle costs for components that age, provided the costs of in-service failure are greater than planned replacement which is often the case.
This report documents the development and application of a collection of functions written in Mathematica that can be used to implement usage-based prognostics using life distributions for components that become less reliable with usage.
For other RAM details see below. This guide supports that objective by focusing on the four key steps necessary for building systems with the required levels of RAM: Understand and document user needs and constraints, 2.
Design and redesign for RAM 3. Produce reliable and maintainable systems, and 4. It concludes with a guide for senior management. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the four-step model for achieving RAM, Chapter 3 focuses on Step 1 including RAM metrics, Joint capabilities integration and development, and pre-acquisition activities.
Chapter 4 focuses on Step 2 and scopes successful approaches for designing-in reliability and maintainability. Chapter 5 focuses on Step 3 and expands this discussion through the testing, production and fielding of capabilities.
Chapter 6 focuses on Step 4 and addresses methods for sustaining RAM through the operational life and providing lessons learned for the following generation of capabilities.
Throughout the document, the guide also highlights the integration of RAM activities with the defense acquisition management framework, the joint capabilities integration and development system, and the systems engineering technical reviews.
The purpose of this primer is to provide instruction in the analytical assessment of system reliability, availability, and maintainability RAM performance.
This text presents concepts and techniques for designing test plans which can verify that previously established system suitability requirements have been achieved.
Test resource availability may be adversely affected by cost, schedule and operational urgency constraints. In such cases, alternate test plans which represent the most meaningful, timely and cost effective approach, consistent with these constraints, must be develop. It is essential that all participants understand the critical issues being addressed and the acquisition risks inherent in conducting a limited test program.
The design and execution of sound test programs is no accident. It requires numerous hours of research and planning and a thorough understanding of testing techniques, the test system and its operating scenario.
Further, the test results must support the development of realistic performance estimates for the entire production run, after having tested relatively few systems. Herein lies the usefulness of the statistical concepts contained in this text.
Topics addressed in this text will familiarize the reader with the statistical concepts relevant to test design and performance assessment.
In short, these topics, when combined with common sense and technical expertise formulate the basis of all sound test programs. Information collected from maintenance records provides practical examples—good and bad—that illustrate the design principles that result in maximum maintainability.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to the principle of maintainability, its importance, and methods of achieving it.
The following 10 chapters refer to simplification, standardization and interchangeability, accessibility, modularization, identification and labeling, testability and diagnostics techniques, prevention maintenance, human factors, and environmental factors—describe in detail their role in achieving the maintainability principles.
Data includes ergonomic details. The level of effort expended should be based on the significance attached to the occurrence.
Most off-normal occurrences need only a scaled-down effort while most emergency occurrences should be investigated using one or more of the formal analytical models. A discussion of methodologies, instructions, and worksheets in this document guides the analysis of occurrences as specified by DOE Order The purpose of this Standard is to establish the development criteria for the preparation and completion of the hardware diagnostic test system for systems, subsystems, and equipments.
This standard is not intended to specify or discourage the use of any particular software development method. The contractor is responsible for selecting software development methods for example, rapid prototyping that best support the achievement of contract requirements.The request for certification should be directed in writing to the Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Children and Family Services, Contracts Management Unit.
View or print the Contracts Management Unit contact information.
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