The Edwardians The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehensionfor the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium. For many, humankind was entering upon an unprecedented era. To achieve such transformation, outmoded institutions and ideals had to be replaced by ones more suited to the growth and liberation of the human spirit. The death of Queen Victoria in and the accession of Edward VII seemed to confirm that a franker, less inhibited era had begun.
His family were German-speaking middle-class Ashkenazi Jews. His father, Hermann Kafka —was the fourth child of Jakob Kafka,   a shochet or ritual slaughterer in Oseka Czech village with a large Jewish population located near Strakonice in southern Bohemia.
After working as a travelling sales representative, he eventually became a fashion retailer who employed up to 15 people and used the image of a jackdaw kavka in Czech, pronounced and colloquially written as kafka as his business logo.
Ottilie was his favourite sister. In November the family moved into a bigger apartment, although Ellie and Valli had married and moved out of the first apartment. In early Augustjust after World War I began, the sisters did not know where their husbands were in the military and moved back in with the family in this larger apartment.
Both Ellie and Valli also had children. His Jewish education ended with his Bar Mitzvah celebration at the age of Kafka never enjoyed attending the synagogue and went with his father only on four high holidays a year. German was the language of instruction, but Kafka also spoke and wrote in Czech.
In addition, law required a longer course of study, giving Kafka time to take classes in German studies and art history. His correspondence during that period indicates that he was unhappy with a working time schedule—from On 15 Julyhe resigned.
The job involved investigating and assessing compensation for personal injury to industrial workers; accidents such as lost fingers or limbs were commonplace at this time owing to poor work safety policies at the time. It was especially true of factories fitted with machine lathesdrillsplaning machines and rotary saws which were rarely fitted with safety guards.
Kafka was rapidly promoted and his duties included processing and investigating compensation claims, writing reports, and handling appeals from businessmen who thought their firms had been placed in too high a risk category, which cost them more in insurance premiums.
The reports were received well by his superiors. Kafka showed a positive attitude at first, dedicating much of his free time to the business, but he later resented the encroachment of this work on his writing time. After seeing a Yiddish theatre troupe perform in Octoberfor the next six months Kafka "immersed himself in Yiddish language and in Yiddish literature".
Later he attempted to join the military but was prevented from doing so by medical problems associated with tuberculosis with which he was diagnosed in On 13 AugustKafka met Felice Bauera relative of Brod, who worked in Berlin as a representative of a dictaphone company. I was not at all curious about who she was, but rather took her for granted at once.
Bony, empty face that wore its emptiness openly. A blouse thrown on. Looked very domestic in her dress although, as it turned out, she by no means was.
I alienate myself from her a little by inspecting her so closely Blonde, somewhat straight, unattractive hair, strong chin. As I was taking my seat I looked at her closely for the first time, by the time I was seated I already had an unshakeable opinion.
Kafka and Felice Bauer communicated mostly through letters over the next five years, met occasionally, and were engaged twice. During this time Kafka began a draft of the Letter to His Father, who objected to Julie because of her Zionist beliefs.
Before the date of the intended marriage, he took up with yet another woman.The 20th century From to The Edwardians. The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehension, for the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium.
For many, humankind was entering upon an unprecedented era. All Quiet on the Western Front - All Quiet on the Western Front One of the best war novels that is read by thousands of high school students each year is Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front.
The Predicament of Culture is a critical ethnography of the West in its changing relations with other societies. Analyzing cultural practices such as anthropology, travel writing, collecting, and museum displays of tribal art, James Clifford shows authoritative accounts of other ways of life to be.
Founded in , Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections, both formal and informal, to Princeton University.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Books shelved as 20th-century-literature: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, by George Orwell, To Kil.