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The earliest fortifications originated in the Fertile Crescentthe Indus ValleyEgypt, and China where settlements were protected by large walls. Northern Europe was slower than the East to develop defensive structures and it was not until the Bronze Age that hill forts were developed, which then proliferated across Europe in the Iron Age.
These structures differed from their eastern counterparts in that they used earthworks rather than stone as a building material. The Romans' own King of the castle tension castra varied from simple temporary earthworks thrown up by armies on the move, to elaborate permanent stone constructions, notably the milecastles of Hadrian's Wall.
Roman forts were generally rectangular with rounded corners — a "playing-card shape". Importantly, while castles had military aspects, they contained a recognisable household structure within their walls, reflecting the multi-functional use of these buildings.
Discussions have typically attributed the rise of the castle to a reaction to attacks by MagyarsMuslims, and Vikings and a need for private defence.
Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure places, while some border regions had relatively few castles. The greatest threat to a lord's home or hall was fire as it was usually a wooden structure. To protect against this, and keep other threats at bay, there were several courses of action available: These features are seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were the more sophisticated version of halls.
They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area,  and formed a centre of administration, providing the lord with a place to hold court. Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other high authority. In the King of West Francia, Charles the Baldprohibited the construction of castella without his permission and ordered them all to be destroyed.
This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, though military historian R.
Allen Brown points out that the word castella may have applied to any fortification at the time. Switzerland is an extreme case of there being no state control over who built castles, and as a result there were 4, in the country.
Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a sudden increase in the number of castles in Europe around this time; this has been supported by archaeological investigation which has dated the construction of castle sites through the examination of ceramics.
The introduction of castles to Denmark was a reaction to attacks from Wendish pirates, and they were usually intended as coastal defences. Their decoration emulated Romanesque architectureand sometimes incorporated double windows similar to those found in church bell towers.
Donjons, which were the residence of the lord of the castle, evolved to become more spacious. The design emphasis of donjons changed to reflect a shift from functional to decorative requirements, imposing a symbol of lordly power upon the landscape.
This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display. This has been partly attributed to the higher cost of stone-built fortifications, and the obsolescence of timber and earthwork sites, which meant it was preferable to build in more durable stone.
The towers would have protruded from the walls and featured arrowslits on each level to allow archers to target anyone nearing or at the curtain wall. The larger towers provided space for habitation to make up for the loss of the donjon.
Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square but polygonal or cylindrical. They were connected to the castle by removable wooden bridges, so if the towers were captured the rest of the castle was not accessible.
It seemed that the Crusaders had learned much about fortification from their conflicts with the Saracens and exposure to Byzantine architecture. An example of this approach is Kerak.
Although there were no scientific elements to its design, it was almost impregnable, and in Saladin chose to lay siege to the castle and starve out its garrison rather than risk an assault.
The castles they founded to secure their acquisitions were designed mostly by Syrian master-masons. Their design was very similar to that of a Roman fort or Byzantine tetrapyrgia which were square in plan and had square towers at each corner that did not project much beyond the curtain wall.
The keep of these Crusader castles would have had a square plan and generally be undecorated. Both Christians and Muslims created fortifications, and the character of each was different.
Saphadinthe 13th-century ruler of the Saracens, created structures with large rectangular towers that influenced Muslim architecture and were copied again and again, however they had little influence on Crusader castles.
It is one of the best-preserved Crusader castles. The orders were responsible for the foundation of sites such as Krak des ChevaliersMargatand Belvoir.
Design varied not just between orders, but between individual castles, though it was common for those founded in this period to have concentric defences.
There would be multiple rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely obscured.Ludwig II (German: Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; English: Louis Otto Frederick William; 25 August – 13 June ) was King of Bavaria from until his death in He is sometimes called the Swan King or der Märchenkönig ("the Fairy Tale King").
He also held the titles of Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, and Duke in Swabia. Castle is a Police Procedural dramedy series, created by Andrew W. Marlowe and starring Nathan Fillion and Stana Katic, which aired on ABC from – It really can be seen as a combination of Moonlighting and Murder, She Wrote, albeit served with a generous helping of Law & Order and seasoned liberally with Nathan Fillion's natural wise-ass charm.
The word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, which is a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place".The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, and a number of words in other languages also derive from castellum.
The word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this. Needful Things: The Last Castle Rock Story [Stephen King] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Leland Gaunt probes the limits of people's desires when he moves to Castle Rock, Maine--opens his shop. King K. Rool makes his first appearance in Donkey Kong Country as the game's main antagonist and the seventh and final boss.
K. Rool and the Kremling Krew come to Donkey Kong Island to steal Donkey Kong's Banana leslutinsduphoenix.com Kremlings encountered little resistance, as the only person guarding them was Donkey Kong's friend, Diddy Kong, whom they kidnap into a DK Barrel, and then they steal DK's.
|Access denied | leslutinsduphoenix.com used Cloudflare to restrict access||Tension in this sense simply means mental strain or excitement in the readers. One of the techniques used is shown when she uses a third-person narration to narrate the story.|
|From the SparkNotes Blog||His parents intended to name him Otto, but his grandfather, Ludwig I of Bavariainsisted that his grandson be named after him, since their common birthday, 25 August, is the feast day of Saint Louis IX of Francepatron saint of Bavaria. His younger brother, born three years later, was named Otto.|
King of the castle tension?“I’m the King of the Castle”: Literature Coursework Investigate the ways in which Susan Hill uses language to create tension and a sense of foreboding in “I’m the King of the Castle” Susan Hill implements several writing techniques to create tension in the novel.