References and Further Reading 1. The Pedigree Thesis The pedigree thesis asserts that legal validity is a function of certain social facts. Borrowing heavily from Jeremy BenthamJohn Austin argues that the principal distinguishing feature of a legal system is the presence of a sovereign who is habitually obeyed by most people in the society, but not in the habit of obeying any determinate human superior Austinp.
It is explained by Dworkin that judges make use of standards that do not function as a system of rules, as opposed to what Hart would argue, but operate differently as other sorts of standards4. Hart, a positivist theorist, would argue that in the majority of cases rules will be clear, however, at some point, they will become indeterminate and unclear5.
At p22 Morrison, W. At p 3 A concept where the law seems to run out, they arise where it is not clear what the legal answer is, or where by the existing rules of law provide no answer. Dworkin continues to explain that if acceptance requires more than obedience, then there was no law in Nazi Germany.
He thus believes that it is inadequate, notably as Ibid Lectures in Jurisprudence ed.
In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something (statements, news stories, arguments, research, etc.). Characteristics of Critical Thinking. Critical appraisal is an important process in advanced-based practice. Critical appraisal is a systematic process used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a research article in order to assess the usefulness and validity of research findings (Kloda, Koufogiannakis & Mallan, ). Describe study findings related to the reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) Behavioral Scale in assessing pain in critically ill adults and children unable to self-report pain. Describe 2 methods for reliable pain assessment of critically ill adults.
At p 8 Supra, nno1 at p82 9 Riddall, J. At p 11 A theory that a proposition of law is true within a particular political society if it correctly reports the past command of the sovereign power. At p35 7 6 Page 2 of 13 there is no rule of recognition that distinguishes between legal and moral principles.
His challenge continues; the idea to separate law and morality is incorrect, not so far that law should be based purely on morality Lord Atkin has constructively developed a principle, the neighbour principle, to be applied in future arising situations The answer was already inherent in society, a substantial belief by Dworkin, that there is a right answer to every legal question, thus not acting retrospectively opposed to what Hart believed that there is no law covering a particular gap or situation According to Dworkin, there in fact lie principles.
Hart would state that judges must use there discretion in deciding whether a particular case comes within a rule or not, by way of statutory interpretation Hart continues to explain that there is no possibility of treating the question raised by the various cases as if there were only one right answer, a solid belief by Dworkin that there is a right answer He argues that by Hart seeing law soles based on a system of rules; he fails to take account of general principles In contrast, Dworkin challenges that the judge does not revert to a policy and act as a law maker; instead the judge applies legal principles to bring about a correct right answer based on law.
At p 23 Wacks, R. At p 24 Supra, nno 10 at p 25 Supra, nno5. At p 26 The concept of Law, at p quoted in Freeman, M. There was no rule in Riggs v Palmer30, only a principle that a person should not benefit from their crime This directs attention towards the fictional judge developed by Dworkin, Hercules J.
He is a judge with superhuman skill, learning, patience and acumen34 used to illustrate an idealistic process, fundamentally essential to his construction This judge is expected to construct a scheme of abstract and concrete principles that provides a coherent justification for all common law precedents and is intended to point the way to the correct legal answer He will decide on a theory of law which best coheres with his community.
Arguably, for that reason, Hercules is deciding cases in the light of what already exists. Dworkin says that we can assume that Hercules accepts most of the settled rules of his jurisdiction, laying down the characteristics of law.
International Journal of Constitutional Law. However, Hercules is criticised on the grounds that he is a mythical being, no judge can behave in this Utopian style40, thus perhaps lacking ecological validity Some have gone so far as to label him a fraud, an assumption that he has discovered the right answer to a hard case, arrogantly assuming his conception of the law is correct.
He agrees that through judicial precedent, judges agree that earlier decisions have a particular gravitational force A judge will rarely have the independence to be inconsistent with this notion by the fact that they acknowledge that they are bound by a hierarchy of previous judicial decisions When a judge Supra, nno 9 At p94 Ibid at p94 40 Supra, nno The term Utopian is a name for an ideal community or society.
At p 44 Sadurski, W.
Furthermore, in the light of this point, Dworkin continues his argument with the analogy of a chess game; perhaps not the most enthused of illustrations.The constitutional validity of the State statute that banned physician-assisted suicide by mentally competent, terminally ill adults was in question.
The District Court held 12 49 F 3d 30 unconstitutional the provision punishing for promoting a suicide attempt.
Dworkins theory on judicial discretion is a component of an amalgam of theories that he advocated in the period before his interpretive turn, those being the Right answer thesis and the Rights Thesis. Judges have no judicial discretion, in the sense of having alternative permissible choices.
Where there is no settled law he is not Continue reading "Critically assess Dworkins . Introduction Validity is arguably the most important criteria for the quality of a test. The term validity opinion as to whether or not the test is measuring what it is supposed to measure.
While it is clearly of some value to have the test appear to be valid, face validity alone is The validity of a test is critical because, without. Dec 31, · The questions in the quality assessment tool were designed to help reviewers focus on the key concepts for evaluating the internal validity of a study.
They are not intended to create a list from which to add up items to judge a study's quality. Legal positivism is the thesis that the existence and content of law depends on social facts and not on its merits.
The English jurist John Austin () formulated it thus: “The existence of law is one thing; its merit and demerit another. 4 Reliability & Validity-7 Internal Consistency: Homogeneity Is a measure of how well related, but different, items all measure the same thing. Is applied to groups of items thought to measure different aspects of the same concept.
A single item taps only one aspect of a concept. If several different items are used to gain information.